Learn More Natural | Full Wash | Semi Wash Process of Coffee

Full wash is a coffee fruit selected in a washed process or also known as a wet process. Generally, this process aims to remove all the flesh of the flesh attached to the coffee beans before drying. After harvesting, the coffee cherries are usually ‘selected’ first by soaking them in water. Floating cherries will be discarded, while the sinking will be left for further processing because the cherries are considered to be ripe.

Furthermore, the outer skin and coffee cherry skin will be removed using a special machine called the depulper (peeler). The coffee beans that have been released from the skin are then cleaned again by putting them in a special vessel filled with water so that the remnants of the skin that is still attached can completely collapse due to the fermentation process.

The duration, or duration of coffee fermented, varies by manufacturer. But generally it ranges from 24-36 hours depending on temperature, thickness of the sap layer on coffee cherries, and the concentration of the enzyme. If the temperature around it gets warmer, the process will be faster too.

General taste profiles: Washed process coffee generally has a cleaner character, light, slightly fruit flavor, body tends to be light and soft with more acidity.


Harvested coffee cherry is put into a depulper machine to peel off the red skin layer. The peeled coffee beans are stored for washing in running water and then soaked (fermented) for 6 hours or 12 hours, some even directly hang them without soaking the coffee beans until the water content is 25 to 30%. This coffee bean which still contains water is called wet grain, its characteristics are bluish green grain color. Coffee beans are very soft and vulnerable to sprawl or penyet and the grain skin is still firmly attached.
Wet paddy then peeled the skin using a huller machine, this grain is still very vulnerable not infrequently coffee beans break at the edges, and crack. Why is that? Because the skin that is still firmly attached is forced to open, even the coffee husk is forcibly released. The peeled coffee beans are called coffee squash.
If the water content reaches 12-15%, the grain is ready to go to the hulling process (peeler) to remove the horn skin. In the huller machine the horn skin will drop and the coffee that has been hulled is ready to be sold for the green bean, store in warehouse in 1 year, and roasted according to its level.
What are the advantages of this process, in terms of roasting the aroma that is generated when casting is stronger, the resulting taste is consistent, the process of casting becomes easier, the appearance of coffee is also better and smoother. In terms of the ability to store coffee grain longer are reaching 2 years, the Shelf Life of coffee green beans are up to 1 year.

Natural Process

In all post-harvest processes, the first thing to do is definitely sorting between good quality fruit and poor quality fruit, after which the drying process is carried out. There are two kinds of ways in this drying process, namely Dry Process (Natural Process) and Honey Process. And this time we will discuss about Dry Process or what we often call Natural Process.

Natural process gayo coffees

As the name implies, this process does not use water and does not even require a pulper machine, because the skin and flesh of the fruit do not need to be peeled. After the coffee is sorted, the coffee fruit is immediately dried in the sun either directly or using plastic green house. The drying process of coffee fruit requires high sunlight intensity, so that the coffee fruit can dry quickly. The faster it dries, the coffee fruit will be able to avoid fungi and a continuous fermentation process. Fruit flesh that is rich in sugar during drying in hot sunlight also gives flavor to coffee beans.

What are the stages in this natural process of coffee beans?

Before entering the drying stage, to get maximum results in the drying process, it’s better to pay a little more attention to how to harvest the ripe coffee fruit. It is unfortunate if we plant quality coffee but at harvest, do not pay too much attention to which coffee fruit is really cooked and which coffee fruit has not. Recommendations for good results, harvest coffee fruits that are completely cooked.

First Stage of Drying
It is important for the ripe coffee fruit and then entering the drying beds to be thoroughly stocked and spread. And don’t forget to make the necessary notes, at what time the coffee fruit starts to enter drying beds. Once spread, it’s good not to exceed 3 inches measured by the thickness of the stack, so that the coffee fruit gets enough air flow during the drying process.

About 3-4 hours have passed, it is important to reverse the coffee fruit section, so that the coffee fruit is exposed to evenly distributed sunlight. And at this stage too, separating which coffee fruit is too ripe and immature, by looking at the color of the coffee fruit, harmonious colors will create a consistent and quality taste profile.

Second Stage of Drying
After three to five days, the coffee fruit will look like dry rubber. At this stage, we can stack coffee fruits up to 5-6 inches thick on drying beds, ensuring that even drying is also important. At least in a day, there are two times reversing the stack.

Gayo arabica coffee - natural dry process

Final Stage of Drying
After the next three to four days, coffee farmers have two ways to end it. The first are some coffee farmers who have a drying machine, the coffee fruit will then be dried again using rotary dryers, to ensure that the coffee fruit is dried out evenly and for resting it. But, not a few coffee farmers also complete the final stages of drying on drying beds.
The most important thing is when measuring moisture content with a moisture meter, it is good to try the dried coffee fruit to have a moisture content below 11%. Hot temperatures when drying, usually around 29-31 ° C, but depending on the area of ​​drying.

Storage Phase
Time to enter the coffee beans in the sacks that you have provided, whether using Grain-pro or other types of sacks. Whether you pay attention to the storage area before the buyer or carrier arrives, make sure to choose the location of the storage room that is cool and not too hot.

The natural process has a sweet flavor that is more due to the length of the fermentation phase of the sweets in the flesh of coffee fruit in the sun. This phase gives fruit sweetness more intense into the coffee beans. Manual brewing coffee enthusiasts choose to use Chemex, V60 or flat bottom brew tools to extract the flavor and aroma of natural coffee.

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